What is Zhukovsky, Н.Е.

Famous Russian aerodynamicist, pioneer of aviation science, founder of Soviet aviation. He was born in Orekhovo (now Vladimir region) on January 5, 1847 and died in Moscow on March 17, 1921.

He graduated from the Department of Physics and Mathematics at Moscow University in 1868 and received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1882. From 1886 he served as professor of mechanics at Moscow University and at the Moscow Higher Technical School. In 1918, he served as president of the Soviet Central Fluid Energy Institute.

Zhukovsky created the aerodynamics that unifies experiment and theory, establishing a scientific basis for the development of aviation technology. Books such as “Some Theoretical Basis for Aircraft”, “Flight Theory” and “On the Flight of Birds” published around 1890, and “On the Best Inclination of Airplanes” published in 1897, developed flight dynamics for aircraft.

Aerodynamic calculations laid the groundwork. The wind tunnel built by Zhukovsky under the leadership of Moscow University in 1902 is one of the first wind tunnels in the world.

In 1907, he used the concept of circulation to clarify the principle of elevator generation and proposed an elevator calculation formula. Zhukovsky was also the first to use mathematical methods to design a series of wing airfoils, called Ru airfoils. A series of papers on the helix vortex theory written by him between 1912 and 1918 provided a theoretical basis for helix design.

Zhukovsky attaches great importance to cultivating talent. Among the young members of the aviation team he organized, many later became famous designers and scientists.

After the October Revolution, Zhukovsky led his students to actively participate in activities to create Soviet aviation. In December 1918, the Central Fluid Energy Research Institute was founded, and later, several advanced aviation technical colleges were founded.

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On December 3, 1920, the People’s Committee of the Soviet Union decided to create a Zhukovsky bonus to reward outstanding work in mathematics and mechanics in recognition of the 50th anniversary of Zhukovsky’s scientific activities. Lenin called Zhukovsky the “father of Russian aviation”. Later, the Soviet government established various bonds in his name and built monuments and museums to honor him.

Zhukovsky wrote over 170 monographs and articles throughout his life, in addition to aircraft and aerodynamics, but also related to solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, mathematics, astronomy, applied mechanics, and other related disciplines. The Soviet Union published the “Complete Works of Zhukovsky” in 9 volumes.

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