Viticulture is known as the set of techniques and procedures that are carried out for the cultivation of the vine and the production of wine. It must be remembered that the vine is the plant that has the grape as its fruit, while wine is the alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the grape.
Also called viticulture, viticulture is often considered a science or an art. Its activities range from the cultivation and propagation of the vine to the production, storage and marketing of wine, including the harvest. The vine can be grown by cutting, grafting, layering or seeding. The success of the crop depends on multiple factors: climatic conditions, irrigation, disease and pest control, etc. Plants should be fertilized with potassium, phosphoric acid and magnesium, among other elements.
It is important to note that, although viticulture is generally associated with wine, the vineyard also allows for the acquisition of fresh grapes for direct consumption, the production of raisins (or raisins) and the production of grape juice. In any case, more than half of the international production of grapes is destined to the production of wine. When knowledge and tasks are exclusively focused on the production of this drink, one can speak of enology. Anyone who is dedicated to wine tasting, on the other hand, is called a sommelier. Among the countries with the most developed viticulture are Argentina, Chile, the United States, Australia, Spain, France, Portugal, Germany and Italy. Step by step of domestic viticulture Although not all of us have the resources to make wine at home, there is still a clear distinction between traditional production, which we can also call homemade, since it is intended for private consumption, and purely industrial production. Below is a brief description of each of the fundamental stages in the production of a white wine: * Harvest: as a good wine can only be obtained from good grapes, this first stage of selection is essential. We must put away the rotten or damaged bunches and pick only the healthy ones; * transport to the warehouse and unloading: throughout this process it is very important to protect the bunches from falls and knocks. The grapes must be unloaded into the reception hopper, and then taken to the destemmer or crusher;
* destemming : viticulture includes this stage, which consists of removing the rasp, for the production of white wine. It is worth mentioning that there are several different techniques, and that some do it after grinding; * crushed : at this point the grains are broken for the extraction of the must, trying not to press them too hard, because if the grains break the flavor can be harmed; * pressing : the resulting paste is pressed and the must is pumped into the fermentation tanks, avoiding excess pressure; * decanting: the wort is left to rest for a few hours so that gravity brings the solid particles to the bottom; * Fermentation: this is the most delicate point of viticulture, because here the sugars are converted into alcohol and for this the yeasts must act, both those that are naturally in the grape and those added artificially. It is important to control the density of the wort at all times and prevent the temperature from rising too high; * Racking: the wine is passed from one tank to another, two or three times, to discard the remaining solid particles; * clarification: chemical substances capable of dragging the residues that could not have been eliminated through the previous step are added; * filtered: the last attempt to obtain an absolutely clean wine; * bottling: for the success of vitiviniculture, distribution is necessary, because this step is fundamental.