Originating from the Latin term visĭo, the concept of vision allows us to describe the meaning that gives different organisms the possibility of detecting light and recognizing places, people and objects (that is, allowing them to see). Vision itself is an ability that animals (including humans) have developed from their eye structure. In the case of certain machines or devices that mimic this achievement, we speak of artificial vision .
The visual system activates different mechanisms to make vision possible. In principle, it takes on the task of interpreting the stimulus received to form the corresponding optical image on the retina, through the cornea and lens of each eye. This part of the visual process is responsible for the optical system.
Specifically, we can say that within what the optical system is, we must highlight the fundamental role played by the various elements of the eye. This includes the cornea, aqueous humor, iris, lens and, of course, the retina. Last mentioned vital part of the eye that can be affected by a number of diseases of greater or lesser importance. Thus, among them we must highlight the known as floating bodies, which are spots in the field of vision, retinal detachment, macular hole or macular degeneration. On the other hand, the cells located in the retina constitute the so-called sensory system of the ocular organ. Here the photoreceptors intervene, which are responsible for capturing the luminosity that hits them. According to experts, there are two classes of photoreceptors: some known as cones and others defined as rods. Other cell types also participate in this step of the process, responsible for converting light into electrochemical impulses and carrying them to the optic nerve. Once there, they are transmitted to different areas, among which we can mention the area of the lateral geniculate nucleus and the visual cortex of the brain. The process of reconstructing distances, recognizing the colors, movements and shapes of objects, finally takes place in the brain. It should be noted that the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) assigns many other meanings to the concept of vision, such as describing direct contemplation without sensitive perception; that of naming an opinion that an individual may have on a specific issue or problem; that of being related to the consideration as true and real of a fantasy or illusion; and representing an image that, supernaturally, is appreciated by seeing or recreating something imaginary. Taking these meanings into account, some of the examples that may work to explain everything we have underlined would be the following: “The young man had a ghostly vision while sleeping in the abandoned mansion” or “The medium had a vision of what could have happened to him . with the missing boy”.
Likewise, it must be emphasized that this type of vision also occurs in certain people who are sick. Specifically, they are suffered by those who experience a moment of psychosis, that is, those who, for some specific circumstance, live in a mental state that distances them from reality. Said patients who will not only have such visions, both auditory and visual, but will also suffer from sudden changes in behavior, memory loss, depression and feelings that people are watching them and even that they are plotting against them. Finally, we can mention the business vision, a component of a company’s planning process.