What is vertebrates?

A vertebrate is an animal that has a skeleton with a backbone and skull, and whose central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord and the brain. The term comes from the Latin vertebratus.

Vertebrates (Vertebrata) belong to the phylum chordates, animals that are characterized by the presence of a dorsal cord or notochord. Experts estimate that there are between 50,000 and 61,000 species of chordates today. Vertebrate animals have the ability to adapt to different environments. Some evolved at sea and later moved to land.

In general, the body of vertebrates can be divided into three regions: head, trunk (which, in turn, is subdivided into thorax and abdomen) and tail. On the trunk, the limbs stand out, which are paired in all vertebrates, with the exception of lampreys. Aquatic vertebrates have a gill respiratory system, while in the case of terrestrial vertebrates, the respiratory system is pulmonary. Another important feature of vertebrates is the integument, which is usually the animal’s most extensive organic system (it completely covers it and protects it from the environment). The integument is made up of three layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The skin of vertebrates gives rise to epidermal (apricot, sebaceous, sweat and/or mammary glands) and dermal (such as fish scales or bony plates from turtle shells, for example) formations. Finally, it should be noted that the vertebrate endocrine system is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Vertebrates and Pain One of the most recurrent debates in recent decades is about pain in animals. Many individuals object that they do not have the capacity to feel pain, like humans, and therefore have no interest in avoiding it; thus, they justify prehistoric customs such as fighting and all kinds of martyrdom to which they condemn other species. It is important to emphasize that pain is fundamental for the survival of each individual , because, through this negative experience, he must become aware of the need to react to what threatens him and seek his survival. The individual’s reactions to this pain can be a movement of flight or attack. Pain is not always physical, sometimes it is emotional: the death of a loved one, for example, causes the individual to feel a deep sadness that leads him to make a decision about his own existence. If an individual did not have the ability to feel pain, he would not be able to take care of his physical or emotional integrity and he would get hurt.

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On the other hand, if science is taken into account, all individuals with the central nervous system have the ability to feel pain , it is understood that the human being is not the only animal that suffers and responds to painful stimuli, but all beings living that have a central nervous system. As vertebrates are found in that large group of individuals that have a nervous system with these characteristics, we can conclude by saying that all those who are part of this last group are endowed with this ability to feel pain and react to it . All this leads us to decide that no one from Lidia is exempt from this notion of pain, that during the races they are aware that the death is approaching and they are extremely scared and they look for the torero because they are asking for help. What do you receive in exchange? More pain, incomprehension and uncontrolled screams and cries. Can we continue to justify so much cruelty?

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