What is validation?

Validation is the action and effect of validating (making something valid, giving it strength or firmness). The adjective valid refers to what has legal weight or is rigid and subsistent.

For example: “We tried to verify the authenticity of the product, but the truth is that it did not pass the validation process”, “The owner has already carried out the validation of the project, which will be developed in the next few months”, ” The program has not passed the validation process. validation and therefore stopped working”. In the field of software creation, validation testing is the review process that a computer program goes through to verify that it meets its specifications. The same, which normally occurs at the end of the development phase, is carried out mainly with the purpose of confirming that the application can perform the tasks that its potential users expect of it.

Validation tests are also performed to determine if a software license is legal or if it is a counterfeit (a pirated copy). Some versions of the Windows operating system run these validation tests automatically (without the need for the user). When it happens that the process is not approved, the system itself warns the user that he may be a victim of a forgery. Cross-validation, finally, is a practical statistic that consists of fragmenting a sample of subsets of data to analyze one and then validating the analysis with other subsets. Validation methods Taking as an example the area of ​​analytical chemistry, which studies the composition of materials through laboratory tests, it is known that it is possible to use a validation method for a specific analyte (the element of interest in a sample), using a certain instrumentation, of the sample in question and carrying out a specific treatment of the data, and that this method can be applied in different laboratories with equivalent results, as long as they meet the same requirements of equipment and personnel. There are different validation methods, which should be used after the development and optimization phase: * Blind method: using samples of known concentration of a specific compound, analysts can determine if they meet a specific set of requirements. Although this method largely depends on who carries it out, it is a low-complexity practice that requires little time and guarantees the impartiality of its participants. Three modes can be distinguished:

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+ blind zero: only one person intervenes;

+ single blind: performed by two analysts;

+ double blind: three professionals participate, dividing the work in a very specific way. The first analyst is responsible for preparing the samples and, together with the second, carries out the relevant analyses. The latter has the task of comparing the results without knowing to whom each one belongs. * Validation with reference materials: it is supported by a material standard or a sample that has been authenticated and the results obtained with them; the condition is that there is an absolute match after validation. It is worth mentioning that these materials are distributed by several laboratories. * Inter-laboratory comparison: this is the most used method, both for the validation of a method and for the elaboration of reference materials. It entails, however, a considerable economic and temporal investment. * Comparison with an accepted method: similar to the last two, it consists of comparing the results obtained by two validations in particular, using any of the three modalities of the blind method.

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