The stock market is only concerned with the type of security and not how it is sold.
The primary and secondary market define how a security is sold. In the primary market, a bond is sold for the first time. This means that the seller is the original issuer of the security being sold. In the secondary market, the bond is sold a second time or more. In most cases, this means that the two parties making the transaction have no direct connection to the original issuer of the bond. While the primary and secondary markets make up the bulk of the capital market, there are also a third and fourth markets that complete the system.
Almost anything can be broken down into a monetary value and traded like a security on the primary and secondary markets. Stocks represent money going into a company in exchange for property rights. Bonds represent debts that the company owes to third parties. Commodities are semi-theoretical stocks of basic goods used around the world. These and hundreds of other items make up the capital market.
The capital market is divided into submarkets that are defined by one of two things – how the security is sold or what the security is. The two market definition methods are unique to each other. For example, the primary and secondary markets are concerned with how the bond is sold rather than what the bond actually is, while the stock market is only concerned with the type of bond and not how it is sold.
In the primary market, a bond is first issued and sold by its issuer. This is one of the main ways new businesses raise capital. The company is divided into shares and passed on to initial investors according to the size of their investment. The company then makes an initial public offering (IPO), where investors who are not originally part of the company can buy it.
The secondary market makes up most of the rest of the capital market. In this market, a security is sold using a common investment method at any time after its initial sale. If the stock is sold a thousand times, each of those sales will be on the secondary market.
While the primary and secondary markets make up the bulk of the capital market, there are two other aspects. The third market is made up of bonds that are sold through third parties, but outside of standard bond exchanges. This is a common method of transferring currency using the foreign exchange market. The fourth market is formed by stock exchanges that take place directly between two parties, without supervision. These sales are totally outside of typical regulatory procedures.