The category that is associated with the verb and that refers to the semantic bond it maintains with the object and with the subject is known as grammatical voice. According to the grammatical voice, the subject is a patient or agent depending on whether he receives or performs the action.
The passive voice, as its name implies, appears with the patient subject. A complement is the grammatical element that performs the action of the verb, while the subject receives it. For example: “The tower in the center of town was designed by my father . ” In this case, “the center tower” is the contributor that receives the action (“was drawn”) performed by the agent’s complement (“my father”).
That same sentence could be turned into an active voice in the following way: “My father designed the tear downtown. ” If we analyze this expression, “my father” is the active subject who performs the action (“projected”). The passive voice can also appear in the news presented by the media: “The budget will be approved by Congress” (active voice: “Congress will approve the budget”), “The Argentine coach was fired by the Catalan club” (active voice: “The club Catalan fired the Argentine coach”), “The speech was broadcast on public television” (active voice: “Public television broadcast the speech”). Thanks to the use of the passive voice, we can emphasize the action or state that a sentence indicates; Contrary to what happens in the active voice, the subject is not relevant, it is anonymous or we assume that all the interlocutors know it well and that is why we omit it. Here’s a little situation where all types of passive voice are used. A woman was hit by a bus. The emergency medical service has already been called. The wound is taken to the health post. The witnesses were interviewed by the police. The woman’s relatives want to be informed. In particular, her father is very worried. As in the previous example actions seem to be more important than who performs them, the passive voice is more suitable than the active voice for this narrative. This does not mean that agents are absolutely irrelevant. On the other hand, we can deduce those that are not mentioned, thanks to the context; For example, it is likely that the woman’s witnesses or relatives called the emergency medical service and she was taken to the hospital by ambulance.
At this point in the definition, we can distinguish between two fundamental types of passive voice: the process voice and the state voice. The passive voice of the process especially emphasizes the action, allows you to answer the question “what happened?”. It is very rare in everyday speech and is reserved for written language; it is formed with the verb ser mais o main, as in the case of “foi trompedo”. With regard to the passive voice of the state, we can say that it serves to describe an event after it is over. It is constructed with the verb estar and can be seen in the following example: «he is very worried»; Before reaching this state, the woman’s father received the news or witnessed the accident, which generated his change of opinion, which will remain stable until his daughter recovers. There is another type of passive voice, known as reflex passive voice. Its use is much more frequent in speech than in passive process voice, although it is often used inappropriately. As a general rule, it is recommended not to use it if the subject of responsibility is a person. An example of reflex passive voice is as follows: “Singing lessons are given . “