What is oven lining?

Oven lining is necessary to protect oven parts from extreme heat.

The firebox lining is a protective and insulating layer of heat-resistant material, attached to the inside of the hearth, hearth and firebox holes. This layer serves to protect the furnace parts from the extreme heat developed during casting operations. It also prevents excessive heat loss from the oven’s outer surfaces, making the process more efficient. Also known as refractory materials, furnace lining materials are typically ceramic or metal/ceramic combination. These protective layers can be made from individual bricks, poured fluid aggregates or semi-wet aggregates that are placed in place.

Metal casting requires extremely high furnace temperatures, with averages ranging between 1,500° and 2,000° Celsius (2,730° and 3,630° Fahrenheit). To prevent the oven housing from being destroyed by these high temperatures, the assembly is equipped with an oven liner. This lining is made up of materials that can withstand extreme heat without degrading. In addition to protecting the oven construction, the liner also insulates the oven to prevent unnecessary heat loss. This reduces the amount of external heating needed to maintain casting temperatures and makes the furnace more efficient.

Furnace coating is normally applied to all interior surfaces. This includes the dome, ladle, fireplace, and holes used to pour or drain molten metal. Kiln liners can be of composite construction with separate materials being used in different parts of the kiln. This composite construction depends on the types of metal being melted, the capacity and configuration of the furnace. This is an important consideration as different thermal, chemical and mechanical loads are placed on separate parts of the oven. Typically, the rim, fireplace and faucet holes are lined with materials other than those used on the sides of the oven casing.

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Furnace lining materials are primarily chosen for their ability to withstand prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures. Other desirable characteristics include resistance to mechanical shock, abrasion, and chemical reactions within the molten metal. The most commonly used kiln lining materials are ceramic composites and metal/ceramic combinations. Ceramic tile materials are made from a variety of raw materials, each with its own strengths. Common ceramic kiln lining materials include aluminum oxide, magnesite, silicon carbide and dolomite.

Metal and ceramic combinations, also known as cermets, combine the high heat resistance of ceramics with the desirable physical characteristics of steel. Ceramics used in these cermet combinations include tungsten carbide, zirconium bromide and aluminum oxide. The steel components of cermets include iron, cobalt, chromium and nickel.

Oven linings are attached to the interior of the ovens in a number of different ways. This includes pouring or compacting wet liquid or aggregates into molds inside the kiln. Another common form of kiln lining is the installation of individual fireproof brick layers, which are then secured with a suitable heat resistant mortar.

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