Inferior myocardial infarction is an infarction involving the inferior wall of the myocardium. It affects approximately 40% of all cases of myocardial infarction.
It is an acute and serious condition that must be treated immediately as a medical emergency. Mortality from this type of infarction is usually less than 10% and, in general, tends to have a better prognosis than infarctions in other parts of the heart, although it depends on the patient’s individual history and conditions.
Unlike cardiac arrest, myocardial infarctions are due to a blockage or ischemia in the heart’s own blood supply resulting in decreased oxygen perfusion to the area which, if not treated promptly, leads to cell necrosis in the myocardial tissue.
inferior myocardial infarction occurs when this necrosis appears in the inferior region of the heart, a region that is irrigated in most patients by the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery.
In approximately 6-10% of the population, coronary anatomy is left dominant and the posterior descending branch does not come from the right coronary artery but from the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, and this is reflected in the fact that approximately 20% of patients with inferior myocardial infarction have ischemia in this left branch and not in the right one.
Coronary ischemia can be produced by multiple causes, one of the most frequent being the detachment of fragments of an atherosclerotic plaque that obstruct and block blood flow.
Myocardial cells consume large amounts of oxygen due to their constant contractile activity, and when blood flow decreases they begin to die, usually causing sharp, sharp pain. They can also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and disorientation.
As a result of a heart attack, the heart’s electrical signals are altered, which can be seen on an electrocardiogram. In addition, as the right coronary artery supplies the atrioventricular node, bradycardia is also frequently seen in association with inferior myocardial infarction.
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment of inferior myocardial infarction usually includes medication and rest. Extra oxygen can also be given by mechanical ventilation if the patient is having trouble breathing. In some, surgical intervention may be necessary.
A heart attack, being caused by tissue necrosis, leaves permanent scars in the heart tissue that increase the risk of future problems. The medical team must provide adequate rehabilitation, treatment and prevention guidelines according to the patient’s situation and the degree of involvement that the infarction had.
Inferior myocardial infarction, like other types of myocardium, tends to be more frequent with increasing age and in people with poor physical conditions.
Among the main risk factors are tobacco and alcohol consumption, hypertension, lack of physical exercise and high cholesterol levels.