In medicine, double vision is known as diplopia and is described as the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object. The two images can be shifted from each other horizontally, vertically or diagonally; they can also be rotated.
Diplopia is the result in most cases of incoordination in the movement of the extrinsic muscles of the eyeball, the group of muscles that control eye movement. The two eyes still function, but they cannot move in a coordinated fashion to focus on an object.
Dysfunction of the extrinsic eye muscles can be caused by mechanical problems, changes in the neuromuscular junction, or problems with cranial nerves III, IV or VI as well as the visual cortex. The range of associated diseases and conditions is very wide and includes ophthalmic, infectious, neurological, autoimmune, cancer and some systemic diseases. For example:abscesses Diabetes Drugs eg fluoroquinolones and psychotropics Brain tumor anisometropia Guillain-Barré syndrome keratoconus Multiple sclerosis Lyme disease orbital myositis Sinusitis Strabismus Botulism alcohol intoxication
As diplopia can be a sign of a systemic disease, including neurological processes, it is advisable to see a doctor if it appears, especially if pain also appears. In addition to double vision, diplopia often affects the perception of balance, coordination of movements, and other skills, for example, reading.
types of double vision
Classification of double vision is one of the first steps in diagnosing diplopia. The first major classification is whether it is binocular or monocular, that is, knowing which symptoms affect each eye separately and whether double vision requires both eyes (binocular) or if it also appears with the eye covered (monocular).
Treatment of diplopia depends on the specific condition causing it, and in any case, diagnosing and treating the underlying cause is essential. Some general guidelines include eye exercises, covering one of both eyes, correction with prisms, or surgery in severe cases.