What is aerobic respiration? (with photos)

Aerobic respiration is the cellular process by which humans obtain energy from food.

Cellular respiration is the process by which living organisms obtain energy from food. There are two main methods. Aerobic respiration – employed by all multicellular and some unicellular life forms – uses oxygen from the atmosphere, or dissolved in water, as part of a complex process that releases and stores energy. Anaerobic respiration is used by a variety of single-celled organisms and does not involve uncombined oxygen.

The Emergence of Aerobic Respiration

Glucose, or simple sugar, molecules are converted into pyruvate, which provides energy to cells, during glycolysis.

The first life forms on Earth arose in a world devoid of free oxygen. They used anaerobic processes to fuel themselves. At some point, early in Earth’s history, organisms developed that used photosynthesis to produce sugar molecules using carbon dioxide, obtained from the atmosphere, and water. The sugar served as an energy source and the process produced oxygen as a by-product. Oxygen was toxic to many anaerobic organisms, but some evolved to use it in a new type of respiration that actually provided much more energy than the anaerobic process.

The breakdown of glucose into cellular energy occurs primarily within the mitochondria.

The first forms of life consisted of cells that did not have nuclei or other well-defined structures. They are known as prokaryotes and comprise organisms such as bacteria and cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. Later, cells with nuclei and other structures appeared; these are known as eukaryotes. They include some unicellular organisms and all multicellular organisms such as plants and animals. All eukaryotes and some prokaryotes use aerobic respiration.

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How does aerobic breathing work

Weight lifting can increase anaerobic power.

Cells store energy in a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This compound contains three phosphate groups (PO 4 ), but can release energy by losing one of them to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP). On the other hand, ADP can gain a phosphate group to become ATP, storing energy.

Another important molecule is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It can exist in two forms: NAD + , which can accept two electrons and a hydrogen ion (H + ) to form NADH, which can give electrons to other molecules. The compound is used in respiration to transport electrons from one place to another.

Cells store energy in a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The starting point for respiration is glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), one of the simplest carbohydrates. More complex sugar molecules in food are first broken down into this compound. Glucose, in turn, is broken down by a process called glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm, or cell fluid, and is common to both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

glycolysis

The process of glycolysis uses two molecules of ATP to convert glucose, which has six carbon atoms, into two three-carbon molecules of a compound called pyruvate in a series of steps. At the end of this process, four molecules of ATP are produced, so there is an overall gain of two ATPs, which represents a gain in stored energy. Glycolysis also results in two molecules of NAD+, each receiving two electrons and a hydrogen ion from glucose to form NADH. Overall, therefore, glycolysis results in two molecules of pyruvate, two of ATP, and two of NADH.

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In eukaryotic cells, the remaining stages of aerobic respiration take place in structures known as mitochondria. These tiny organs are believed to have been independent organisms that were incorporated into cells sometime in the distant past. Each molecule of pyruvate is converted, with the help of NAD + , into a compound called acetyl coA, losing one atom of carbon and two of oxygen to form carbon dioxide as a waste product and forming another molecule of NADH.

The Krebs Cycle

The next step is called the Krebs cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) or citric acid cycle. The acetyl coA from pyruvate combines with a compound called oxaoleacetate to produce citrate, or citric acid, which, in a series of steps involving NAD+, produces ATP, as well as NADH and another molecule called FADH 2 , which has a similar function. This results in citric acid being converted back to oxaloacetate to start the cycle again. Each complete cycle produces two molecules of ATP, eight of NADH and two of FADH 2 from two molecules of pyruvate.

Electron Transport Phosphorylation

The final stage is known as electron transport phosphorylation, or oxidative phosphorylation. At this point in the process, the electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are used to provide the energy to attach phosphate groups to ADP molecules to produce up to 32 molecules of ATP. This takes place at the mitochondrion membrane via a series of five proteins, across which the electrons are transported. Oxygen, which readily accepts electrons, is required to remove them at the end of the process. The oxygen then combines with hydrogen ions released from NADH to form water.

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Efficiency

Overall, the aerobic respiration process can, in theory, produce up to 36 energy-storing molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose, as compared with just two for anaerobic respiration, making it a much more energy-efficient process. In practice, however, it is thought that around 31 or 32 ATP molecules are typically produced, the other reactions can take place in the final stages. Although this process is a highly efficient way of producing and storing energy, it also produces small amounts of very reactive forms of oxygen, known as peroxides and superoxides. These are potentially damaging to cells and it is thought by some scientists that they may be involved in aging and in some diseases.

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