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Pulse transformers are a type of transformer that conducts and channels electrical currents at a pulse rate, rising and falling in waves with constant amplitude. These pulsating waves are also sometimes called rectangular pulses because of their top-down shape when mapped; they look much more like rectangles than rolling hills of pulsating things like the human heart, for example. Most transformers used to power things like city grids and standard electrical operations provide a more or less constant, or flat, current. Pulsing rectangular waves are not typically used in these scenarios, but there are several situations where they are ideal, if not necessary. This includes certain telecommunication circuits and digital logic situations, as well as some lighting situations such as camera flashes in complex photographic equipment. Certain radar systems use them as well. Typically, there are two main types of signals, namely signal and power. Each has a different rhythm, but generally has a very low tolerance for distributed capacitance and leakage inductance, as well as a high open-circuit inductance. Mounting any type of pulse-based transformer is typically a bit of a challenge, but mounting kits are available in many places for do-it-yourself specialists or electronics enthusiasts.
In general, transformers conduct electricity and filter signals to various outposts in a controlled and calculated manner. Pulse-based transformers are no different, but they are distinguished by the way they regulate the output. Rectangular electrical pulses have a fast rise and fall time and are essential for applications involving things like switching elements or discharging required energy. Smaller models are often very small and are used in portable electronics and many digital applications. Larger transformers are often essential for controlling flux in high power semiconductors, among other things.
The size of the device and, by extension, the overall design of the transformer determine its function. There are two main types of pulse transformers: signal and power. Signal types, which are smaller transformers, handle relatively low power levels and provide a series of pulses or pulse-like signals. They are used in situations where only a few volts are needed for a few microseconds, such as in telecommunication circuits and digital logic applications. Even some lighting applications use small pulse-generating transformers.
power pulse models
The other main type of pulse-based transformer is the power pulse transformer. These devices require low coupling capacitances, which is critical to protect circuits on their primary side from high power transients from the electrical load. Power models also need high breakdown voltage and insulation resistance to work efficiently. They must have an adequate transient response to maintain the rectangular shape of the pulse, because pulses with a less than ideal rise and fall time tend to induce switching loss in most power semiconductors.
Devices such as controllers for camera flashes or other power control circuitry often use what is known as a medium power pulse transformer. Larger models are used in the electrical distribution industry, where they facilitate interactions between the low voltage circuits and high voltage gates found in power semiconductors. Some special versions are used in radar systems and other applications that require high power pulses.
high voltage transformers
There are also devices similar in function to the regular pulse-based transformer, and they are called high-voltage pulse transformers. Unlike traditional transformers, the construction of these transformers is open and generally used in high voltage insulating oil. Typical pulse output voltages range from 100 to 500 kilovolts. Pulse lengths can range from 0.25 microseconds to 50 microseconds.
Assembly kits and other optimization tools
Kits for these transformers include a complete unit of tools and machines that can optimize the performance of any transformer device. In addition to the pulse generating transformer, the unit usually includes a current and voltage monitor, bypass capacitors, and a heating transformer. A despiking net, a klystron socket and a liquid cooling system are also part of the assembly. All these components are part of a circuit that keeps the pulse transmission constant and with low distortion. Specific measurements for each assembly, such as number of kilovolts, megawatts, and pulse duration in microseconds, are provided on the company’s website or on the product label.