Many pigments, dyes and stains contain chromophores.
A chromophore is a group of atoms within a molecule that are responsible for the molecule’s color. Chromophores are found in a wide variety of molecules and can function in many different ways. Groupings of atoms within a molecule that contribute in some way to its characteristics are also known as moieties or functional groups; a chromophore adds color to a molecule because of the nature of the atoms involved and the way they are linked together.
Dyes can color materials unevenly due to poor distribution, uneven absorption in the material, and other factors.
The bonds between atoms in a chromophore allow the atoms to absorb some visible light while reflecting other visible light, lending the molecule its color. In some cases, atoms can pair up with each other, so the chromophore is actually capable of emitting visible light. The nature of the color can vary depending on the absorbed and reflected wavelengths and many other factors, including environmental factors such as fog, which can obscure the color.
Chromophores are atoms within a molecule that give the molecule its color.
These specialized moieties are also present in atoms within cells that have a color-related function, including photopigments and chromatophores. In photopigments, chromophores and opsins are linked and will respond to light. These pigments can respond to or capture light by changing shape. A classic example of photopigment can be found in the human eye, where sensitized cells respond to visible light to provide an image of the visible world.
Pigments, dyes, stains and other dyes contain chromophores. In this case, the dye is used to saturate or coat a material so that it is the color of the dye. As people may have noticed during craft projects, dyes can be uneven as a result of poor distribution, uneven absorption of the material being dyed, and other factors. Natural variations in color can also be seen in many animals, in which cells that contain chromophores are altered or not allowed to form, altering the presentation of color characteristics.
Researchers are sometimes interested in chromophores identification because it can provide interesting information and insights into the molecules being studied. Often, color can play a role in the function of a molecule. Various techniques can be used to identify the portion responsible for the color of a molecule and to see how it works. These structures are also commonly used during spectrometry, in which information about a sample is collected by exposing it to radiation, including visible light, and seeing how it responds.