What are the different types of plant cells? (with photos)

The epidermal cells on the surface of plants are only one cell thick.

Plant cells differ structurally from the cells of most other organisms in some important ways. Specifically, they are generally larger than animal cells and are surrounded by a rigid cell wall made of cellulose. They also often have a large central vacuole that takes up most of the cell, and if they do photosynthesis, the cells will have chloroplasts. This does not mean that all these cells are the same, and in fact, there are several different types of cells found in most plants.

Phloem transports material through a plant in all directions.

Plants basically have three types of tissues, which are made up of different types of cells. The surface tissue forms the protective outer layer that covers the plant. Fundamental, or simple, tissues are usually composed of only one cell type and are typically grouped based on the level of cell wall thickness. Vascular tissues are complex tissues that consist of more than one cell type. There are only two types of vascular tissue: xylem and phloem.

Chloroplasts give leaves their green color.

The surface tissue, or epidermis, of a plant is usually only one cell thick, although it can be much thicker if the plant lives in a very dry environment and protection against water loss is crucial. It is composed of epidermal cells, which usually have a very large vacuole. The cell wall facing the outside of the plant is usually thicker than the cell wall facing the inside of the plant.

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Plant cells are larger than animal cells and are surrounded by a rigid cell wall.

The epidermal cells in leaves can be specialized as guard cells. These cells control the opening and closing of tiny holes in the leaves, called stomata. In this way, they regulate the movement of gases in and out of the plant. The function of the epidermal cells lining the roots is to absorb water from the soil. To increase surface area, many epidermal cells develop long hairs, or filaments, on their surface.

The xylem is composed of parenchyma cells and two specialized cells called tracheids and vessel elements.

There are several types of fundamental tissues, including parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. Parenchyma is made up of parenchyma cells and occurs in the roots, leaves and stems of plants. These plant cells are relatively unspecialized and contain large vacuoles and a thin cell wall. Within leaves and stems, most chloroplasts are found in parenchyma cells. They give cells their green color and allow photosynthesis to take place.

Collenchyma cells are longer than parenchyma cells and their cell walls are much thicker. Its function is to provide support in young plants and in the stems and leaves of older non-woody plants. Sclerenchyma cells also provide support to plants and are much more specialized than collenchyma cells. They have a thick secondary wall that is hardened to strengthen the plant, and these cells usually die at maturity.

Xylem and phloem are the two types of vascular tissue found in a plant. The xylem is composed of parenchyma cells and two specialized cells called tracheids and vessel elements. Both tracheids and vessel elements are dead and their function is to provide support and transport water from the roots to the rest of the plant.

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Phloem tissue is alive and is composed of parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells. In addition, it contains specialized plant cells called sieve tube cells and companion cells. The function of the phloem is to transport material through the plant in all directions, and they do not contain a nucleus and contain very little cytoplasm. Companion cells are closely associated with sieve tube cells and are believed to perform cellular functions for both cell types.

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