What are some different types of science?

Computer science is related to information processing in computers.

Science is a broad grouping of disciplines containing many different areas, all linked together by a single concept: the scientific method. The scientific method represents an investigative method based on observation, deduction, hypotheses and experimentation that can be applied to all areas of life. While there are many ways of looking at science, one of the most common is to divide it into three broad categories, each of which contains numerous subdisciplines: formal science, natural science, and social science.

Although mathematics is its own science, it is also used by all other fields of science.

Formal science represents those disciplines that deal with theoretical symbols and ideas and their applications in the real world. Its inclusion as a science is often contested, but aspects of it are used across all other scientific disciplines. Formal science includes computer science, mathematics, and statistics.

Natural science is the science that people usually think of when they hear the term. Those who study it use the scientific method to understand nature and the physical world. The natural sciences and their subdisciplines are sometimes called “hard sciences” by their proponents and include biology, chemistry, geology, and physics.

The social sciences are the study of societies and the interactions within them, whether in groups or individuals. It is sometimes called “soft science” by detractors. The social sciences include anthropology, psychology, and sociology.

Each broad scientific category contains many disciplines and subdisciplines with specific research focuses. Some of these science types for each category include the following:

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Formal science subjects

Botany is the study of plants.

Computer Science focuses on processing information in computers and other computing devices. Scientists develop new algorithms to process data, improve computer programming languages, and work with many other aspects of computers and programs that modern societies deal with on a daily basis.

Mathematics is dedicated to the representation and processing of quantities. Although the mathematical expression “1 + 1 = 2” may seem simple, it is actually a complex concept fraught with semantics. Aspects of mathematics are used by all other types of science.

A scientist working in a laboratory.

Statistics is the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. While it can be used to find patterns, disprove theories, and make predictions, statistical science itself does not focus on any individual real-world idea. Instead, the theories and laws of statistics can be applied to any properly formatted data. A Q-Test, for example, can be used on data collected from a chemistry, biology, or psychology experiment.

Natural Sciences Disciplines

Entomology is the study of insects.

Biology is the scientific study of life. This can be very broad, like how different species might have evolved over millions of years, or it can be very specific, like what a particular animal eats. Biology has many subdisciplines, including botany, entomology, and zoology.

Chemistry studies are important, its states and how it changes. What individual components things are made of, how they change when exposed to different temperatures, how they can be broken down, and how they can be rebuilt are questions that chemists often ask and try to solve. Subdisciplines of chemistry include biochemistry, food chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry.

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Entomology is a natural science that focuses on the study of insects.

Physics is the study of matter, forces and interactions and can be studied on a very large or small scale. The study of how planets and other stellar bodies interact is an example of physics done on a very large scale, while the study of subatomic particles represents physics on a small scale. Astronomy, electrodynamics, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics are subdisciplines of physics.

Disciplines of Social Sciences

Anthropology is the study of the origins, development and uniqueness of human beings. It borrows from many other disciplines and includes the branches of archaeology, cultural anthropology, and physical anthropology.

A science degree can pave the way for many careers.

Psychology is the scientific study of thought and behavior. Understanding why people make the choices they do, how they deal with stress, and predicting what choices they will make in the future are all aspects of psychology. Analytical, behavioral, cognitive, and gestalt are all different schools of psychological thought and theory.

Sociology is the scientific study of groups of people. How these groups interact with each other, the rules of the groups (norms and laws), and how these groups are formed are all aspects that sociologists consider.

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